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Landscape Lighting – Landscape Design

 

The feature and area lights accent specific sections of the walkway to visually attract visitors and guide them through the path.
The feature and area lights accent specific sections of the walkway to visually attract visitors and guide them through the path.

Landscape lighting is  not picture small colored bulbs that illuminate a residence around the holidays. However landscape lighting, in the context of landscape architecture, exterior illumination has expanded beyond the Christmas lights into a completely different realm of lighting. They can be used to focus on specific elements of a design that can typically be seen as a whole during daylight. This type of lighting can also be used to direct a visitor literally and visually. It can draw visitors into a landscape and persuade them to stay past dusk. Landscape architects have proven that night lighting design creates intrigue but also manages to benefit the landscape and the homeowners.

Typically, lighting can be split into a few categories, some of which include feature lighting, area lighting, spot lighting, etc. Each hold a specific purpose in landscape design. Certain types of lighting might strictly focus on a small portion of a facade of a house, a tree, or a combination of vegetation and hardscape. Exterior illumination can allow a design to be seen from a different perspective and at a different time of day. As a designer you and the client can decide what elements of a designated space that you want to create an emphasis.

While night lighting creates a beautiful aesthetic to a landscape, it is necessary to address the health effects of night lighting on vegetation. Too much lighting on vegetation can cause growth problems, so when considering night lighting for vegetation, perhaps using indirect lighting might be the healthier option.

On the flip side, exterior illumination provides some benefits to the homeowner. Aside from the dramatic aesthetics that coincide with night lighting, there personal and home safety increase. The lighting makes for easy visual access to and through the landscape, which makes it more difficult for a burglary to go unnoticed. Additionally, tripping hazards are alleviated with more night lighting. It is always a good idea to have sufficient lighting near decking and especially pool areas, front steps and porches areas as well.

Night lighting provides more opportunities for homeowners to utilize their landscape as much as possible. Rather than feeling limited to daylight restricted activities, people can take these activities to a later time of day. Night lighting has been installed within decks and patios which promote people to say outside longer and linger in their outdoor living spaces. Consider implementing more landscape lighting to your home to get the most out of your outdoor living space.

Landscape Design

The implementation of an accent hardscape can dress up even the most simplest of walkways.
The implementation of an accent hardscape can dress up even the simplest of walkways.

Depending on the city, the abilities and the types of landscape design will vary. Focusing on the eastern portion of the Lehigh Valley, Bethlehem is leaning in a positive direction for landscape and garden design. Bethlehem is fortunate because despite its average spread, it is still covers a wide spectrum of design being that it holds urban, rural, and suburban characteristics.

Bethlehem residential landscape design is rising in popularity, and regardless of the location, there is always potential for design. Although every landscape company has their own approach, Garden Design takes advantage of existing conditions as well promoting the usage of appropriate vegetation, hardscape design and materials, and landscape lighting.

To start, urban sections and older neighborhoods in Bethlehem tend to give off a small town feel, so simple planting and walkway and patio design is common. Throwing in a few perennials and a unique paver pattern and layout will add a splash of color and aesthetic to a formerly drab landscape. If space for planting design is limited, utilizing planting containers on and/or near the walkway and patio can produce a more welcoming feel to the landscape.

The suburban classification in Bethlehem covers a majority of the land.  This creates overwhelming potential for many forms of landscape design. Depending on when the house was built, a spectrum of conditions can coexist. In some of the newer neighborhoods, there is very little well-developed vegetation, in comparison to some of the older neighborhoods that have vegetation that has been growing for many years.

Large quantities of the houses built in the past ten years or so are typically built on a ‘clean landscape’ , which will be used in the context of little/minimal standing vegetation that existed pre-development. While this could pose ecological problems in the long run, this at least open the gates for more design opportunities for the home owner. Experimenting with front walkway design using different hardscapes can make one landscape stand out from the rest. Flagstone is not a common paver type in newer sections of Bethlehem; however, there is much potential for these materials considering its easy accessibility and attractive appearance.

Sizes of back yards in Bethlehem vary depending on the housing type, location, and year in which the house was built, but most yards are large enough to fit at least a small patio. One of the many benefits of patio design is that there are so many options to explore that can create a solid landscape design. Patio layouts and materials can easily be customized to each individual user.

Bethlehem is moving a steady rate toward more modern designs in the field of architecture and landscape architecture. Taking a look at other designs outside of the residential realm, Steel Stacks displays innovative design methods that will hopefully become translated and integrated into more forms of design.

Psychology of Landscape Design for Outdoor Living

psychology of landscape design
psychology of landscape design

Knowing about the psychology of landscape design guides landscaping a successful outdoor living room? What makes patio  landscaping a rich and dynamic space that encourages us to go into the landscape and spend time outdoors? The qualities of the landscape design and the landscape construction will determine if you paver patio, flagstone patio, concrete patio or even gravel patio are inviting, warm and embracing spaces. Principles of the landscape design apply to any outdoor room and can be applied to landscape projects of all scales. Some elements of design are universal and others depend on individual preferences. The most primitive and universal principles are rooted in our psychological predispositions and survival instincts stemming from the long history of human evolution. These relate to the geographical and architectural structure of the space in relation to the surroundings. The more temporal and individual characteristics will manifest in the stylistic and material elements of the structure. These elements of style change often with cultural and individual trends while the structural principles landscape design are timeless.

The primary psychology of landscape design principle in the design of an outdoor living patio in called ‘defensible space’ in the western psychology paradigm. Eastern cultures incorporate the same principle into broader design paradigms such as Feng Shui.  Early in human evolution, survival required us to inhabit spaces that could be defended. The first garden courtyards were walled sanctums from a dangerous outdoor world. But we also need a way to see our surrounding, to know what danger may be coming or to have good vantage point for food resource potentials. Humans are comfortable when they feel like there is adequate ‘wall barrier’ around them and when the have good visual viewpoint vantages. These two elements work together in that the greater visibility of our surroundings allows for lesser dependence on barriers. If we are at the peak of a grassy hill and can see a long distance in every direction, we have less need for barrier protections since we can see any danger and flee. Contrarily, in an area dense with visual obstacles, we feel the need for more ‘walls’.

We are many years evolved from those early years of human history, but the principles are ingrained and pertinent to landscape design today. If we are creating an outdoor living space in a rural area, within a setting of beautiful nature, we may want our patio space to open wide to the surroundings. Conversely, in the city we tuck our patios tight to the home and create privacy barriers to the surroundings. So the first principle is that all other principles of landscape design start first with and understanding of the broader geographical and architectural surroundings.

The most common psychological preference, regardless of setting, is to inhabit a space where we can feel safe and private but also have good views of our surroundings when we want them. That is the primary principle to follow when designing a patio in the landscape. The key is how we feel or rather how the person who will inhabit the space will feel. This is where a designer has to be a psychologist. Though security seems to have some universal elements, people feel safe for a wide range of reasons. One person may feel most comfortable back against the wall tucked into a building corner, while another may need to be away from buildings with a good 360 degree view and the openness provided. These are questions that must be resolved to best design a patio for the specific resident.

When it comes down to the enclosure of an outdoor living space, psychology of landscape design can again guide decisions. Remember that it is how the resident feels in the space that determines their level of comfort. There is not a universal approach to how we create the feeling of security and comfort. Some people will only need to have simple distractions around their outdoor living space in order to keep their attention from outside ‘dangers’. This can be accomplished with landscape dynamic landscape plantings, perennials with season change, shrubs with texture and color, and trees with sculptural interest. Other people may need heavier structures using heavy planting barrier designs with dense evergreen foliage, stone walls, wood fences or a combination of all these landscape elements. Landscape design is a process of creating space that will impart a character of feeling, an emotion. Too often a landscape designer focuses on the aesthetics, the forms or the art and the materials from a self-based orientation and they neglect the emotions of those who will inhabit the space.

A successful outdoor living room patio will help create a safe, peaceful and joyous set of emotions for those who ‘own’ the space, those who most use it and for whom it was designed. It will provide ‘protection’ from surroundings where needed and good views of the larger environment where appropriate. It will also have clear delineation for the choreography of movement, the access and egress to surrounding spaces, and adaptability for uses that will likely change over time. But, those landscape design principles will be discussed in a future article.